# Calling TI BIOS APIs from OpenCL C kernels¶

The TI extension to OpenCL to allow general standard C functions to be called from OpenCL C kernels can be used to dispatch code on the DSP’s that make use of TI’s BIOS APIs.

Warning

Usage of BIOS APIs from OpenCL is considered an advanced technique and should only be used if the application creator is knowledgeable of the BIOS APIs, the BIOS scheduler and the OpenCL execution model. However, with suitable care, this extension expands the use cases under which OpenCL is an applicable framework for heterogeneous multicore applications on TI System on Chip (SOC) platforms.

This feature is available only on AM572x devices.

## Use cases¶

• Ability to set a timeout for computations dispatched from OpenCL
• Ability to register a task or clock function to persist on the DSP outside of a normal OpenCL kernel dispatch
• Ability to start and stop a DSP computation with independent OpenCL kernel dispatches
• Ability to create additional BIOS tasks (threads) on the DSP and coordinate among them with semaphores
• Ability for in-flight DSP code dispatched through OpenCL to communicate with a host thread, without a new OpenCL C kernel to start or finish.

## Need to know¶

• The extension to allow BIOS API calls is currently only supported on TI’s AM57x family of devices.
• Printf capability from DSP code is only supported from OpenCL C kernels or code in the direct call tree from the kernel. Conversely, printf is not supported in DSP code in any user created BIOS Tasks or clock handlers.
• The OpenCL run-time reserves the BIOS Task priority levels 6-10 for the internals of the OpenCL run-time and any OpenCL C kernel code. Task priority levels 0-5 can be used for user created Tasks at lower priority than OpenCL and Task priority levels 11-15 can be used for user created Tasks at higher priority than OpenCL.
• All OpenCL C kernels dispatched to the DSP run as part of a BIOS Task. BIOS is not a time-sharing RTOS. If a higher priority Task is ready to run, it will, until it becomes blocked, at which time the next highest level Task ready to run will be scheduled. If a user created Task is given a higher priority than the OpenCL run-time uses for dispatched code, then it must either complete or periodically block. If it does not, then the OpenCL run-time Tasks will never be scheduled again and the system could deadlock.
• All BIOS APIs that take a time unit as an argument or return a time unit as a value are in terms of BIOS clock ticks, which are configured to occur every 1 millisecond, so a call to Task_sleep(1000) would effectively be a sleep for 1 second.
• Counting the DSP clock ticks around a Task_sleep() call may not give an expected value. This can occur if the DSP has no other Task to execute, in which case, it will idle and the CPU clock tick register will not advance. For example, with the DSP running at a frequency of 750Mhz and the following code, it could be expected that the variable elapsed contained approximately 750,000,000. However, in reality the value of elapsed may be far smaller.
unsigned t0      = __clock();  // value of DSP's TSCL register
Task_sleep(1000);              // equivalent of 1 second
unsigned t1      = __clock();  // value of DSP's TSCL register
unsigned elapsed = t1-t0;      // cycles elapsed between __clock() calls

• It is recommended that you do not call BIOS APIs directly from OpenCL C code, but instead call BIOS API’s from standard C code, that is called from OpenCL C code. This is recommended due to the differing interpretation of the long and ulong data type. OpenCL C defines these types as 64 bits, but the standard C compiler for the DSP interprets these types as 32 bits. The BIOS APIs use data types that are defined by BIOS and these types correspond with the standard C compiler interpretation and not the OpenCL C interpretation.

• APIs from the following BIOS and IPC packages are supported:

• ti.sdo.ipc.MessageQ
• ti.sysbios.family.c66.Cache
• ti.sysbios.heaps.HeapBuf
• ti.sysbios.heaps.HeapMem
• ti.sysbios.knl.Clock
• ti.sysbios.knl.Idle
• ti.sysbios.knl.Intrinsics
• ti.sysbios.knl.Queue
• ti.sysbios.knl.Semaphore
• ti.sysbios.knl.Swi

## Examples¶

The following examples included in the OpenCL package illustrate using BIOS APIs within C code called from OpenCL C kernels:

• persistent_clock_concurrent
• persistent_clock_spanning
• persistent_common
• persistent_kernel_timeout
• persistent_messageq_concurrent
The examples are located in /usr/share/ti/examples/opencl. Building these examples requires the installation of XDC/BIOS/IPC packages from the corresponding Processor SDK RTOS package. The following are what Makefile is looking for, override them to set up pathes to either each package or the whole Processor SDK RTOS installation.
PRSDK_INSTALL_PATH     ?= /cgnas/ti-processor-sdk-rtos-am57xx-evm-04.00.00.04
XDC_DIR                ?= $(wildcard$(PRSDK_INSTALL_PATH)/xdc*)/packages
BIOS_DIR               ?= $(wildcard$(PRSDK_INSTALL_PATH)/bios*)/packages
IPC_DIR                ?= $(wildcard$(PRSDK_INSTALL_PATH)/ipc*)/packages