Dispatch from multiple Linux processes

On OpenCL versions 1.1.11 and older, the Linux process corresponding to an OpenCL application takes ownership of the OpenCL DSP device on encountering the first OpenCL API call and relinquishes ownership when it ends. Mutually exclusive access was implemented using a file lock, /var/lock/opencl. If two processes A and B contained OpenCL API calls and A started running, A would acquire the file lock when it executed the first OpenCL API call. Process A would hold the lock until it completed execution at which time process B can acquire the lock. Also, if a process forked a child process and both processes invoked OpenCL APIs, the processes would deadlock.

Starting with version 1.1.12, the process level lock, /var/lock/opencl was eliminated. Multiple Linux processes can dispatch OpenCL kernels to the DSPs. Each kernel runs to completion. The execution of kernels submitted by multiple processes is interleaved.


To enable concurrent processes to dispatch OpenCL APIs, a daemon was added (ti-mctd). The daemon provides the following services:

  1. Manage the OpenCL contiguous memory (CMEM) heap. Since multiple processes with OpenCL APIs share the heap, the daemon provides a centralized location to manage the heap.
  2. OpenCL DSP monitor lifetime management (only on K2x SoCs). On K2x devices, the ti-mctd daemon uses MPM to reset, load and run the OpenCL monitor on the DSPs during boot.

The ti-mctd daemon is started during boot as a systemd service. The associated systemd unit file is located at /lib/systemd/system/ti-mct-daemon.service


The daemon can be stopped by the user by executing pkill ti-mctd and restarted by executing ti-mctd. Scenarios in which the user will need to restart the daemon include:

  1. The DSPs crash (or)
  2. The Linux inter-process shared memory heap managed by the daemon runs out of space (application terminates with a boost::interprocess::bad_alloc exception).

With scenario #2, the ti-mctd daemon can be stopped and restarted with a larger Linux shared memory region specified in the daemon config file, /etc/ti-mctd/ti_mctd_config.json. E.g.

# pkill ti-mctd
# edit /etc/ti-mctd/ti_mctd_config.json, increase linux-shmem-size-KB from 128 to 256
# rm /dev/shm/HeapManager (if still exists)
# ti-mctd
# ls -lh /dev/shm/HeapManager
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root      256.0K May  2 15:44 /dev/shm/HeapManager


ti-mct-heap-check prints the current state of the OpenCL CMEM heap. For example, the output below was generated when ti-mct-heap-check was run during the execution of an OpenCL program.

root@am57xx-evm:~/test# ti-mct-heap-check
-- ddr_heap1 ------------------------------
Addr : 0xa2000000
Size : 0xa000000
Avail: 0x9ffcf00
Align: 0x80
     addr: 0xa2000000 size: 0x16a000
     addr: 0xa216a800 size: 0x2df800
     addr: 0xa244b180 size: 0x395000
     addr: 0xa27e1900 size: 0x981e700
     addr: 0xa216a000 size: 0x800 pid: 27112
     addr: 0xa244a000 size: 0xc00 pid: 27112
     addr: 0xa244ac00 size: 0x580 pid: 27112
     addr: 0xa27e0180 size: 0xd00 pid: 27112
     addr: 0xa27e0e80 size: 0x900 pid: 27112
     addr: 0xa27e1780 size: 0x180 pid: 27112


ti-mct-heap-check will not print anything if the OpenCL heap has not been created. The heap is created on demand when the first process with OpenCL APIs executes.

The –c option can be used to free any allocated blocks which have not been freed by the process that allocated them. This situation typically occurs when a process terminates abnormally.

ti-mctd config file

Starting from OpenCL product version 1.1.13, the ti-mctd daemon reads a configuration file, /etc/ti-mctd/ti_mctd_config.json, when it starts. The following is a sample configuration from K2H EVM:

root@k2hk-evm:~# cat /etc/ti-mctd/ti_mctd_config.json
        "cmem-block-offchip" : "0",
        "cmem-block-onchip" : "1",
        "compute-unit-list" : "0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7",
        "linux-shmem-size-KB" : "128",
        "eve-devices-disable" : "0",

cmem-block-offchip and cmem-block-onchip specify the CMEM block ids for OpenCL use. The offchip CMEM block is required for OpenCL, while the onchip one is optional. These two config items are provided so that OpenCL CMEM blocks can co-exist with CMEM blocks dedicated for other uses.

compute-unit-list specifies which DSPs that OpenCL applications can use. This is a system wide config. It can be overridden by environment variable TI_OCL_COMPUTE_UNIT_LIST on a per-shell or per-application basis. The compute unit list must be consecutive. But it doesn’t need to start from the first available and end with the last available DSP in the system. For example, 1,2,3,4,5,6 is a valid compute unit list on K2H. OpenCL kernels will only be dispatched to the DSPs specified in this list. This config item is provided so that OpenCL DSPs can co-exist with DSPs dedicated for other uses.

linux-shmem-size-KB specifies the size of Linux shared memory that the daemon and OpenCL applications use to manage shared data structure. As already discussed in previous section, increase it if you see bad_alloc exception.

eve-devices-disable specifies whether to disable EVE devices, if available on the SoC (e.g. AM57x9s). By default, the value is 0, which means EVE devices are enabled in OpenCL runtime. Should user choose to not use available EVE devices in the OpenCL runtime, please change the value to 1.

Restrictions on multiple OpenCL processes

Starting from OpenCL product version 1.1.13, when OpenMP extension is not used, an OpenCL application can run in parallel with other OpenCL applications as long as for any two concurrent applications, they use either the same compute unit list or two non-overlapping compute unit lists. For example, sgemm example does not use OpenMP extension, the following sgemm instances can be run in parallel on K2H:

root@k2hk-evm:~# ./sgemm -M 1024 -K 2000 -N 1000 -r & \
                 ./sgemm -M 1000 -K 2000 -N 1024 -r
## or launch them simultaneously in two separate windows/shells
root@k2hk-evm:~/examples/sgemm# \
TI_OCL_COMPUTE_UNIT_LIST="0,1,2,3" ./sgemm -M 1024 -K 2000 -N 1000 -r & \
TI_OCL_COMPUTE_UNIT_LIST="0,1,2,3" ./sgemm -M 1000 -K 2000 -N 1024 -r & \
TI_OCL_COMPUTE_UNIT_LIST="4,5" ./sgemm -M 1000 -K 2048 -N 1024 -r & \
TI_OCL_COMPUTE_UNIT_LIST="6,7" ./sgemm -M 1024 -K 2048 -N 1000 -r
## or launch them simultaneously in four separate windows/shells


OpenCL applications dispatching kernels with OpenMP extension can not run in parallel with any other OpenCL applications. Starting from OpenCL product version 1.1.13, when OpenMP extension is used, OpenCL application can still run with a reduced compute unit list (i.e. not all available dsps are used). E.g. dgemm example uses OpenMP extension in its kernels, you can force it to run on only core 1 and 2 by TI_OCL_COMPUTE_UNIT_LIST="1,2" ./dgemm on K2H.


When running OpenCL applications in parallel, in general, the side effects of each kernel should be self-contained and not extend beyond the kernel boundary. Otherwise, they might affect kernels from other applications without other applications even knowing it. For example, if a kernel reduces cache size to obtain some fast scratch memory, it should put the cache back to its original size when the kernel finishes. The following is a list of actions that have side effects (not limited to this list):

  1. Changing cache sizes
  2. Allocating a buffer and using it in a kernel with user defined dsp heap extension